Social Conflict as a Generational Conflict
O’Connor places the broader societal conflict of race relations within the context of the volatile relationship Julian has with his mother to connect the two issues that transformed the South in the 1960s. In many ways, Julian’s mother still lives in the South of her ancestors, with strict social codes of conduct that determined the behavior of both whites and blacks. Even though these norms no longer apply, she still adheres to the old customs to resist the startling changes that the new desegregation and antidiscrimination laws have brought. Julian, meanwhile, eagerly seeks to embrace the new, integrated South and the promises of greater prosperity and racial equality. He rejects the older social order and espouses the liberal ideas of a younger generation, condemning older whites’ attitudes regarding race. Like most young, idealistic Southerners, however, he has trouble acting on his convictions and fully treating blacks as equals or even people. Julian’s clashes with his mother over dress, race, and appearances in general mimic the greater conflict in society and ultimately result in violence.
Appearance as a Faulty Measure of Reality
Both Julian and his mother rely heavily on appearances to separate and elevate themselves from the rest of society. Julian’s mother, for example, hopes that her public demeanor and clothing will hide the fact that she no longer has any of her family’s former wealth. In turn, she judges others on their appearance, including blacks, whom she automatically considers inferior. She looks down on the African American man on the bus who wears a suit, even though he is better dressed than Julian, and still places herself above the large black woman on board, even though she realizes that they wear the same hideous hat. Ironically, Julian relies on appearances to quickly judge others around him too, even though he criticizes his mother for this same shortcoming. He despises his own neighborhood with its rundown houses and evident poverty and resents the fact that his family no longer has any of its former wealth. Julian uses his education to distinguish himself from those around him, repeatedly claiming that true culture comes from the mind in a weak attempt to justify his apparent failure as a writer. Julian’s and his mother’s delusions illustrate the unreliability of appearances.
Lineage as Safety
Julian’s and his mother’s longing for the grandeur of the past suggests that neither character has fully come to terms with their lives as poor whites in an integrated South. For both characters, the past serves as safety net—a place filled with prosperity and sunshine, untroubled by poverty and social upheaval, and recalling the past allows them to continue living in a changing world they don’t understand. For Julian’s mother, the family heritage gives her an immutable social standing despite the fact that she lacks the money or prestige that her family once had. As a result, she has a distorted perception of her place in the world. Julian feels tormented by his family history and agonizes over the family connection to slavery, yet he still dreams of the past to escape his dreary life as an educated typewriter salesman.
More main ideas from Everything That Rises Must Converge
At the heart of all of Flannery O’Connor’s fiction is the theme of the surprising action of God’s grace in a world that seems oblivious to it. The invisible action of this grace moves through each story, becoming visible at a key point in the action (usually the very end), though sometimes to the reader only. These moments of epiphany, or “revelation,” to use the title of one of these stories, redeem the otherwise dark and sordid vision O’Connor offers of the fallen world. “Grotesque” is the term critics most often use for this vision, though O’Connor repudiated the word.
One of the devices O’Connor uses to effect the reader’s participation in each epiphany is the subversion of the story’s point of view. She chooses as her protagonist a character whose point of view is furthest from that of the story. After building sympathy for the point-of-view character, she then allows an action (usually violent) to upset the status quo, revealing the weakness of that point of view. In the title story, for example, the reader takes part in Julian’s condemnation of his mother’s prejudices, but when his own prejudices lead to her collapse from a stroke, he reveals not only his prejudices but also his need for her. In “Revelation,” Mrs. Turpin’s neat hierarchy of classes of people is disturbed by violence when she is attacked by someone she had pegged as on the bottom rung; the story ends with her vision of the lower classes entering Heaven before her.
Another favorite characterization technique of O’Connor is her flair for exotic names of the type critic Franklin P. Adams called “aptronyms,” names that are appropriate descriptions of the characters who hold them. “Turpin” suggests “turpitude,” or moral baseness, an ironic name for a woman who scorns the baseness of others; it comes from the Latin turpis, meaning “ugly,” and the girl who attacks Mrs. Turpin had been categorized by her as “the ugly girl.” Another ironic aptronym is “Sheppard” in “The Lame Shall Enter First”; he thinks himself a good shepherd to the delinquent boys he...
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