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Harvard Referencing Multiple Authors Bibliography Format

Multiple authors of a work

Up to three authors - include all authors (with second and third author initials before surname).

In text example:

As Smith, Stewart and Cullen (2006) have argued...

Reference list example:

SMITH, F., R. STEWART and D. CULLEN, 2006.  Adoption now: law, regulations guidance and standards.  London: BAAF

More than three authors - always give the first author, with or without the others - use et al. if not giving the other names.

In text example:

Mares et al. (2002, p.105) proposed...

Reference list example:

MARES, P. et al., 2002. Health care in multiracial Britain. Cambridge: Health Education Council

Corporate authors

These can be a company/organisation/institution etc.

In text example:

Home Office (2001) has outlined...

Reference list example:

HOME OFFICE, 2001.  Policing a new century: a blueprint for reform.  Norwich: The Stationery Office

Missing authors (Anon.)

If a work has no author, ideally try and find a corporate author.  If you really can't find one, use Anon. (but consider the quality of the source to ensure you feel it is appropriate to include if no author is assigned to it).

In text example:

As evidenced by Anon. (2004)...

Reference list example:

ANON., 2004.  Social services year book 2004.  32nd ed.  Harlow: Pearson Education

Authors of multiple works

If an author has written more than one work in a year, add a,b,c, etc after the date to distinguish between them.

In text examples:

Smith (2007a, p.22) suggested… Further, Smith (2007b, p.3) explained…

Reference list examples:

SMITH, A., 2007a. How to cite references. Southampton: Solent Publishing

SMITH, A., 2007b. Avoiding plagiarism. Southampton: Solent Publishing

This system applies no matter what format the source material is in; so if an author published a book, a podcast and a journal article all in 2010, they would still be given as 2010a, 2010b and 2010c.

If an author has written more than one solo work in different years, list them in date order (oldest to newest).

What is quoting?

Quoting is where you copy an author's text word for word, place quotation marks around the words and add a citation at the end of the quote. Quotes should be using sparingly. Using too many quotes can suggest you don't fully understand the text you are referring to.

In scientific writing, you should generally paraphrase from sources, rather than quote directly. Quoting more extended sections of text tends to be more common in arts and humanities subjects where it may be appropriate to quote frequently from the literature that is being analysed.

As you take notes, ensure you clearly mark where you have quoted directly from the source.

Direct quotations

If you use a direct quotation from an author, you should:

  • enclose it in quotation marks
  • give the author, date and page number(s) that the quotation was taken from, in brackets.

If you are quoting from a website or webpage that does not have page numbers, you do not need to include anything to indicate this in the citation.

"Language is subject to change, and is not caused by unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance" (Aitchison, 1981, p.67).

Quotations more than two lines long

If the quotation is more than two lines:

  • separate it from the rest of the paragraph by one free line above and below
  • indent at left and right margins
  • it may be in a smaller point size
  • it is preceded by a colon
  • it does not use quotation marks
  • the citation includes author, date and page number(s) that the quotation was taken from.

One answer to this is that language has always been subject to change, just as everything else in the world is, and we should not feel that this is a bad thing. As Aitchison (1981, p.16) puts it:

Language, then, like everything else, gradually transforms itself over the centuries. There is nothing surprising in this. In a world where humans grow old, tadpoles change into frogs, and milk turns into cheese, it would be strange if language alone remained unaltered. In spite of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language change, regarding alterations as due to unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance.

Aitchison clearly sees every change in language as neither good nor bad, but inevitable...

Editing a quote

You may want to make minor changes to a direct quotation. This is possible (as long as you don't change the meaning), but you must follow the rules.

  • If you omit parts of the quotation, use an ellipsis. An ellipsis consists of three dots (...). Do not begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. The reader already assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.
  • If you want to insert your own words, or different words, into a quotation, put them in square brackets [ ].
  • If you want to draw attention to an error in a quotation, for example a spelling mistake or wrong date, do not correct it; write [sic] in square brackets.
  • If you want to emphasise something in a quotation that is particularly relevant to your essay, put the emphasised words in italics, and state that the emphasis is your own.
  • If the original has italics, state that the italics are in the original.

Example 1:
Language changes are natural and inevitable. It has been argued that language:

gradually transforms itself over the centuries. In a world where [everything changes], it would be strange if language alone remained unaltered. In spite of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language change (Aitchison, 1981, p.16, my italics).

Example 2:
According to Smith (1992, p.45), "Aitcheson [sic] appears to believe that everything changes; but this is questionable" (italics in original).

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