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## Phd Thesis Latex Bibliography And References

LaTeX supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the environment and the BibTeX system.

Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible.

## Introduction

Standard bibliography commands in LaTeX have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.

\begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}

The environment produces a list of references; such list will be titled "References" in a article document class, and "Bibliography" in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, in the example, indicates the number of entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99.

To create a bibliography entry the command is used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and so on is entered.

ShareLaTeX provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link

Open an example in ShareLaTeX

## Embedded system

The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to cite the entries of that list within the document.

\begin{document}   \section{First section}   This document is an example of \texttt{thebibliography} environment using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}   \end{document}

The command insert the number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the output of is [2].

The information printed by the command depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles.

Open an example in ShareLaTeX

## Bibliography management with Bibtex

BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in LaTeX, with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document.

Once the external bibliography file is imported, the command is used just as in the introductory example.

Ths document is an example of BibTeX using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}

This uses the following commands:

Imports the BibTeX file "sample.bib" to display the bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary.
Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher, and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in LaTeX.
This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the label produces [2].

When the main document is compiled, a .bbl file is generated from the .bib file. This is simply a .tex file reorganising the information in the .bib file in a environment, as above. On ShareLaTeX the .bbl file is stored in the cache, and you can download it from the list of other logs and files.

Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools.

Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

## The bibliography file

Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields. Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry.

This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:

This is the first line of a record entry, denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. Besides the entry types shown in the example (, and ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide.
The label is assigned to this entry, is an identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document.
This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields.

The information in this file can later be used within a LaTeX document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection.

Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).

To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command or

for books and reports or

for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example.

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \section{First Section} This document ...   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}   \end{document}

Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

## Reference guide

Standard entry types

Article from a magazine or journal
A published book
A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution
An article in a conference proceedings
A part of a book (section, chapter and so on)
A part of a book having its own title
An article in a conference proceedings
Technical documentation
A Master's thesis
Something that doesn't fit in any other type
A PhD thesis
The same as
Document not formally published, with author and title

Most common fields used in BibTeX

 address annote author booktitle chapter crossref edition editor institution journal key month note number organization pages publisher school series title type volume year URL ISBN ISSN LCCN abstract keywords price copyright language contents

@article{einstein, author = "Albert Einstein", title = "{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. ({German}) [{On} the electrodynamics of moving bodies]", journal = "Annalen der Physik", volume = "322", number = "10", pages = "891--921", year = "1905", DOI = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19053221004" }   @book{latexcompanion, author = "Michel Goossens and Frank Mittelbach and Alexander Samarin", title = "The \LaTeX\ Companion", year = "1993", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", address = "Reading, Massachusetts" }   @misc{knuthwebsite, author = "Donald Knuth", title = "Knuth: Computers and Typesetting", url = "http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html" }
\usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}

## LaTeX forum ⇒ Theses, Books, Title pages ⇒ No bibliography appears and references appear as "?"

Classicthesis, Bachelor and Master thesis, PhD, Doctoral degree

Vel
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Location: Sydney, Australia
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Postby Vel » Mon Mar 30, 2015 1:02 pm

Hi Maria,

You need to run bibTeX on the main thesis file by navigating to the directory of the template in the command line and entering “″. After this, recompile the document and your references should show up. Any time you make changes to them repeat the procedure to update them. Alternatively, some LaTeX compilers such as MiKTeX can automate the process, have a look at their documentation.

Cheers,
Vel
Founder and administrator of LaTeXTemplates.com and LaTeXTypesetting.com
templateuser
Posts:679
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2015 4:01 pm

Postby templateuser » Mon Mar 30, 2015 1:02 pm

Hi Maria and Vel

I write here because I have the same problem you had ” no bibliography appears and in the section about referencing the references appear as “?”” , However I can’t solve it. I use TexMaker, so I have tried to run BibTex to Thesis.tex, and after Quickbuild. Besides, I don’t know where is the command line. No matter what, i get “Undefined citation at XX line”. Thanks for your answer, BibTex is getting me MAD.

Thanks

Tito
Vel
Site Moderator
Posts:454
Joined: Fri Jun 29, 2012 1:20 am
Location: Sydney, Australia
Contact:

Postby Vel » Mon Mar 30, 2015 1:02 pm

Hi Tom,

Your LaTeX compiler should have an option to run BibTeX on the file. If not, navigate to the directory of main.tex using the command line in your operating system and type . You can then re-compile as normal and the bibliography will show up.

Cheers,
Vel
Founder and administrator of LaTeXTemplates.com and LaTeXTypesetting.com
templateuser
Posts:679
Joined: Tue Mar 03, 2015 4:01 pm

Postby templateuser » Mon Mar 30, 2015 1:02 pm

Hi Vel

I think I have the same problem. My references show up as [?]. I have had succes with it and all my references worked, but somehow they stopped working, and I have no idea, what I did wrong? I am very new to LaTeX, so this is very frustrating.

I tried compiling the template as it is, when i unzip it, and the references in Chapter 1 works fine.

ebbbe
Vel
Site Moderator
Posts:454
Joined: Fri Jun 29, 2012 1:20 am
Location: Sydney, Australia
Contact:

Postby Vel » Mon Mar 30, 2015 1:03 pm

Hi,

Most likely you have errors in your references that are stopping their correct compilation. For example, you need to escape LaTeX special characters like "&" in your bibliography or it will not compile. BibTeX should give you a list of warnings when you compile the bibliography so have a read of that and do some searching for what those errors mean. Good luck!

Cheers,
Vel
Founder and administrator of LaTeXTemplates.com and LaTeXTypesetting.com
Johannes_B
Site Moderator
Posts:3639
Joined: Thu Nov 01, 2012 4:08 pm

Postby Johannes_B » Fri Aug 21, 2015 12:48 pm

It should be noted that bibtex has to be run on the basename of your document, i.e. (no file ending. If you want to pass a file ending, make the call .

On the other hand, modern needs the modern package biblatex and does not work with natbib.
The smart way: Calm down and take a deep breath, read posts and provided links attentively, try to understand and ask if necessary.

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