The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to lead the reader to an exact item in the bibliography, so the first entry in the bibliography (usually author’s last name, sometimes title if no author is listed) is what is included in the parenthetical citation. Additionally, the exact point (page number) is listed.
Plagiarism is using the words, thoughts, or ideas of someone else without giving credit. Plagiarism can take many forms, and it can be intentional or accidental.
"Along with using someone’s direct words without quotation marks and attribution, plagiarism includes using someone’s thoughts or ideas and representing them as one’s own. For example, if you were to change the wording of a passage, but not credit the source, you are plagiarizing as much as if you used the original words. This presents something of a conundrum: students are required to use the research and writing of others, but such use is limited. In most research assignments, students are encouraged – or even required – to use the research of others, but proper credit must be given.
To ensure that you will give credit appropriately, begin by keeping your research materials organized. There are many note-taking systems available to assist you, but it is essential that you keep track of which ideas came from which sources. After finding good information from a reputable source, you must then integrate that information into your paper. There are several methods of doing this: quotation, paraphrase, and summary." (Talman)
Encyclopedia – A book or a series of books used for reference on a range of materials or numerous information typically around one subject.
Encyclopedia in Print
Last, First M. “Article Title.” Encyclopedia Name. City: Publisher, Year Published. Page(s). Print.
Note: Well-known publications only require edition and year, and no other publication information.
McGhee, Karen, and George McKay. “Old World Monkeys.” Encyclopedia of Animals. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2007. 30. Print.
Encyclopedia found online
Last, First M. “Article Title.” Encyclopedia Name. City: Publisher, Year Published. Page(s).Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Note: When citing sources reproduced online from their print versions, it is not necessary to include online information such as the website publisher or the date of the electronic publication. The date of the online publication was not available and was not included in the citation.
McGhee, Karen, and George McKay. “Old World Monkeys.” Encyclopedia of Animals. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2007. 170-71. Google Books. Web. 2 July 2010.
Encyclopedia article found in a database
Last, First M. “Article Title.”Encyclopedia Name. Ed. First M. Last. Vol. City: Publisher, Year Published. Page(s). Database Name. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Date accessed: This is the date you accessed the source.
Note: If no edition or volume number is given, leave it out.
Holmes, Heather. “Advertising of Food.”Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Ed. Soloman H. Katz.Vol. 1. New York: Scriber’s, 2003. 16-20. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 July 2010.